Academic Word List

The AWL is a list of words which appear with high frequency in English-language academic texts. The list was compiled by Averil Coxhead at the Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.

The list contains 570 word families and is divided into 10 sublists. Sublist 1 consists of the 60 most common words in the AWL. Sublist 2 contains the next most frequently used words and so on. Each sublist contains 60 word families, except for sublist 10, which contains 30.

To find these words, an analysis was done of academic journals, textbooks, course workbooks, lab manuals, and course notes.
The list was compiled following an analysis of over 3,500,000 words of text.

The words selected for the AWL are words which occur frequently in a range of academic subjects, including the Arts (including history, psychology, sociology, etc.), Commerce (including economics, marketing, management, etc.), Law and the Sciences (including biology, computer science, mathematics, etc.). This means that the AWL is useful to all second-language learners who wish to study in an English-speaking institution no matter what their field of study. The AWL does not, however, include technical words which are specific to a given field. Nor does it contain words which are of general use and very high frequency.

Academic word list


Teaching ideas – learned

  1. Vocabularyvocabulary

    Vocabulary is the knowledge of words and word meanings. As Steven Stahl (2005) puts it, “Vocabulary knowledge is knowledge; the knowledge of a word not only implies a definition, but also implies how that word fits into the world.” Vocabulary knowledge is not something that can ever be fully mastered; it is something that expands and deepens over the course of a lifetime. Instruction in vocabulary involves far more than looking up words in a dictionary and using the words in a sentence. Vocabulary is acquired incidentally through indirect exposure to words and intentionally through explicit instruction in specific words and word-learning strategies.

  2. What is involved in knowing a word?

    Form Spoken Receptive What does the word sound like?
    Productive How is the word pronounced
    Written Receptive What does the word look like?
    Productive How is the word written and spelled?
    Word parts Receptive What parts are recognizable in this word?
    Productive What word parts are needed to express this meaning?
    Meaning Form & meaning Receptive What meaning does this word form signal?
    Productive What word form can be used to express this meaning?
    Concept & referents Receptive What is included in the concept?
    Productive What items can the concept refer to?
    Associations Receptive What other words does this make us think of?
    Productive What other words can we use instead of this one?
    Use Grammatical functions Receptive In what patterns does this word occur?
    Productive In what patterns must we use this word?
    Collocations Receptive What words or types of words occur with this one?
    Productive What words or types of words must we use with this one?
    Constraints on use (register, frequency…) Receptive Where, when and how often would we expect to meet this word?
    Productive Where, when and how often can we use this word?

    Source: Nation, P., 2001, Learning Vocabulary in Another Language, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, p. 27

  3. How should vocabulary be effectively taught to EFL learners?

    According to Michael Graves (2000), there are four components of an effective vocabulary program:

    1. wide or extensive independent reading to expand word knowledge
    2. instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words
    3. instruction in independent word-learning strategies, and
    4. word consciousness and word-play activities to motivate and enhance learning

    When thinking about how to teach vocabulary, it is important to remember that learners need to have both active and passive vocabulary knowledge.

    That is, students must vocabulary should consist of English words the learners will be expected to use themselves in original sentences, and those they will merely have to recognise when they hear them or see them written down by others.

    Teaching passive vocabulary is important for comprehension – the issue of understanding another speaker needs the listener to have passive vocabulary, that is, enough knowledge of words used by others to comprehend their meaning. This is also called receptive knowledge of English.

    Teaching active vocabulary is important for an advanced in terms of their own creativity. This is because in order to create their own sentences, students need active vocabulary

    Active vocabulary contains the word a student can understand and manipulate in order to use for their own personal expression. This is called productive knowledge of English

  4. Teaching Strategies

    • Illustration
      This is very useful for more concrete words (dog, rain, tall) and for visual learners. It has its limits though, not all items can be drawn.
    • Mime
      This lends itself particularly well to action verbs and it can be fun and memorable.
    • Synonyms/Antonyms/Gradable items
      Using the words a student already knows can be effective for getting meaning across.
    • Definition
      Make sure that it is clear (maybe check in a learner dictionary before the lesson if you are not confident). Remember to ask questions to check they have understood properly.
    • Translation
      If you know the students’ L1, then it is fast and efficient. Remember that not every word has a direct translation.
    • Context
      Think of a clear context when the word is used and either describe it to the students or give them example sentences to clarify meaning further.

Teaching Vocabulary

I. Course Description

Age: 12-18 years old

Level:  pre-intermediate

Topic: Transport public

Aim: Students will be able to:

  1. identify word about transport public
  2.  use the words to communicate with others

Requirement: Complete at 70% of assignments

2. The role of WP

Words list will be posted on Wp

Students access to follow the instruction and do exercies

Students Submit given quiz

Teacher gives feedback

3. Content will display on WP

  • Course descriptions:
    • Syllabus
    • Materials (name, source to download,…) and references
  • Assignments
  • Quizzes
  • Discussiion

– Feedback



4shared is a free online file-sharing service that provides storage for music, video and photo files. Upon registering for an account 4shared will provide users with 10-GB of online storage space. However, files stored by users with free accounts are removed if you do not log in the account for 180 days.  4shared sets a 2048-MB size limitation per file.

4shared also offers an application programming interface (API) that allows others to implement different 4shared services (e.g. search, login) on Web sites.


A free imagelink service for images! Upload images and use the imagelinks on forums, websites or just share with friends.

How to use:

1) Select file to upload
2) Add tags if you want
3) Copy link after upload finishes


Dropbox is a personal cloud storage service (sometimes referred to as an online backup service) that is frequently used for file sharing and collaboration.  The Dropbox application is available for Windows, Macintosh and Linux desktop operating systems. There are also apps for  iPhone, iPad, Android, and BlackBerry devices.

To share a file, the user can generate a URL for it from the Dropbox website and send it out so that others can view it. Folders can be shared by sending an invitation from the Dropbox website. Recipients that don’t have Dropbox accounts will have to sign up to access the folder. Once a folder is shared, it will appear in the folder system for everyone who has access to it and all members will be able to make changes to files. All versions of files are saved.

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SlideShare is a slide hosting service, acquired by LinkedIn in 2012. It allows users to upload files (PowerPoint, PDF, Keynote, or OpenDocument presentations) either privately or publicly. The slide decks can then be viewed on the site itself or can be embedded on other sites. Just as YouTube allows users to upload and share videos, SlideShare allows users to upload and share slideshows. 

Although the site was originally intended for businesses to share slides amongst employees, it has expanded and now hosts a huge number of slideshows which have been uploaded for anybody to view. 

And a lot of people do view them. In fact, SlideShare has 60 million users, hosts over 18 million pieces of content, and gets 159 million monthly page views.

Even so, SlideShare is currently only used by around 17 percent of B2B marketers. Most social media marketers focus their efforts on Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Instagram, andLinkedIn. And, of course, a good presence on all of these platforms is essential to a good social media marketing campaign. But many should perhaps consider SlideShare, too. 

In fact, because so few marketers consistently upload content to SlideShare, there’s a lot less competition on the platform. This means that your content will have more chance of getting seen on SlideShare than on more popular platforms. So long as you create a valuable, aesthetically pleasing presentation, there’s no reason why you can’t expect your content to get hundreds or thousands of views almost immediately.  

Here are some of the benefits of using SlideShare:

  • Using SlideShare means you won’t have to worry about hosting content on your own site since you can just embed content from SlideShare. A far more practical and less time-consuming process. 
  • Using SlideShare means you will be able to tap into the large number of SlideShare visitors and raise your own profile. 
  • Using SlideShare is low cost, since there is both a free account option and the option to go pro. 
  • Using SlideShare is easy, since most people are already familiar with PowerPoint and so are able to generate content relatively quickly. 
  • Using SlideShare will allow you to grow your brand and is perhaps the platform which can best accommodate more detailed and in-depth content – i.e., content that may not be appropriate for sharing on other social channels. 

So, SlideShare is great. Yes. But how do you go about creating a good presentation?

1.  Design, Design, Design


SlideShare’s users expect high-quality content. Meet this requirement, and you can expect to be rewarded by clicks and shares. Ignore it and prepare to watch your content sit around not doing an awful lot.

SlideShare itself has written about what makes for a well-designed presentation. In short, presentations should:

  • Not use overwhelming background images, since this can make text hard to read. Instead, use a light-coloured, subtle background so that people can read what you have to say clearly.
  • Not centre-align all text and images, since this can create a chaotic, disjointed effect.  Rather, only align some of your text centrally. Move supporting text to the left for a more balanced look. 
  • Not consist of only one font size. Draw attention to the more important parts (words or sentences) of your slide with larger fonts and use smaller fonts for less important information of a slide. 
  • Not overuse drop shadows. Drop shadows, especially thin, dark shadows against a white background, look blurry and cluttered. If you need to use a drop shadow, only ever use it on the header (never the body).
  • Not use poor quality images. Nothing looks as unprofessional as a poor quality or low resolution image. If you want to use an image for the background, make sure it is in the 1000 pixels size range. Anything smaller should only be used as part of a slide, never a background.  
  • Not use tacky or cheap fonts. Fonts which appear childish or tawdry will put viewers off instantly (I’m looking at you, Comic Sans). But this doesn’t mean you can’t experiment with fonts. There are some great ideas for font combinations here.  

2.  Use Keywords to Rank Higher

No surprises here. Like any content, using keywords will improve your contents’ internal and external search ranking. This means your presentation should contain common relevant search phrases, as well as certain important words.

You should also include your keyword or phrase in the title and description or your presentation, as well as in tags. And make sure that you use a keyword as a file name when you save your content to the site. 

SlideShare presentations already rank pretty well in Google. Making sure yours is keyword-optimised will give you the best possible chance of getting spotted.

3. Make it Valuable

It can be tempting to create slideshows that harp on about how great you or your product/service is. But generally such presentations do not perform very well.

Like any good content, your slideshows have to give readers valuable industry information. This may be the results of a survey, a summary of a whitepaper, speculative industry insights, or market reports. 

Whatever information you choose to use as the basis of your presentation should be relevant to your target audience and give them insights and information they haven’t seen before and can’t get elsewhere. 

If you can consistently deliver such information, your SlideShare account will take off big time. 

4. Share Presentations Elsewhere

If you’re just starting out on SlideShare, a great way to drive initial traffic to your content is to direct it from other social channels.

Of course, LinkedIn is a safe bet, since the content you’re likely to be sharing will be detailed and in-depth information on SlideShare, and such information will go down best with professionals. 

The best way to do this is to post the presentation to LinkedIn (easy, since the two platforms are well integrated) and then share it as a status update from your personal account, your employees’ personal accounts, and your company page. It’s also possible to add SlideShare content to your LinkedIn profile’s summary page. 

And other social platforms can do their part too. There’s no reason why you can’t post your slideshow to Facebook and Twitter. It might not perform as well here as on LinkedIn, but all traffic is good traffic. 


SlideShare is a great opportunity for social media marketers. But in order to make the most of the platform, you will need to take the time to create high-quality content. To do this, you will need an effective content strategy and a good content calendar.

And you’d better move quickly. As I say, SlideShare is still a relatively untapped resource. But it’s not likely to stay that way for long…

Are you using SlideShare? Or are you considering doing so? Let us know what you’re doing on the platform or why you want to get started with it. 



MediaFire is a file hosting, file synchronization, and cloud storage service based in Shenandoah, Texas, United States. Founded in June 2006 by Derek Labian and Tom Langridge, the company provides client software for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android, iOS, BlackBerry 10, and web browsers. MediaFire has 43 million registered users[3] and attracted 1.3 billion unique visitors to its domain in 2012

Both public and private file sharing are supported through MediaFire. Private file sharing consists of a user sharing directly to another user or a group of users and is done through importing contacts or email. The account holder is able to control read or write permissions on a per user basis. Public sharing consists of a user getting a public link, which allows anyone with the link to download the file. Public links are always read only. MediaFire also supports sharing with one-time links, which are only valid for a single use.

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